「以新自由主義為人所知——強調市場力量、個人主義及國家新用途——的政治－經濟計畫，在1970年開始在一波波的擴張、鞏固和危機中不斷地變異重生，而且在2008年全球金融危機及Covid-19疫情期間過後持續如此作用。」（The political-economic project known as neoliberalism—emphasizing market forces, individualism, and the repurposing of the state—has mutated, repeatedly, through successive waves of expansion, consolidation, and crisis, since the 1970s. And it has continued to do so in the aftermath of the global financial crisis, beginning in 2008, and through the time of the pandemic.）——傑米．派克（Jamie Peck）
F.自1980年代以來，派克教授持續投入新自由主義的研究。在1990年代中回到英國教書之前，他還曾在澳洲墨爾本進行博士後研究，並花了一年的時間在美國的約翰霍普金斯大學擔任哈克尼斯研究員（Harkness Fellowship），成為著名馬克思主義地理學家大衛．哈維的同事。那時在巴爾的摩的他，開始對美國產生疑問：為什麼沒有人研究國家？國家在美國的社會與經濟生活扮演的角色是個有趣的盲點，對批判社會科學學界也是如此（如果與歐洲對比，國家的行為是會被仔細檢視的）。從此，派克教授的研究密切關注美國，並在2000年開始長期定居北美。他看到許多對於經濟地理學來說，是個進行國家與國家轉型研究的契機：在這裡任教，正是能就近在美國「自家」（at home）從事新自由主義研究的好機會。
c.就研究方法上，地理學者傾向於是「萬事通」（jack of all trades）。相對於其他專業領域學者鎖定特定取徑，地理學以多種方法補足單一研究方法的缺陷，要義在於創意；地理學不是專才，而是擅長組合創造新事物。
h.最後，一位研究生代他人提問，當前正在進行關於基隆作為大台北都會區一環下的郊區研究時，援引了尼爾．布倫納（Neil Brenner）的全域都市化（planetary urbanization）概念，卻被批評郊區在與都市的權力不對等情況下，是否有研究必要的挑戰。
The outline of the Yang Nantsi Lecture: Jamie Peck’s discussion with geography postgraduate students
Discussant: Jamie PECK
Recorder: Kai-Yang HUANG
The political-economic project known as neoliberalism—emphasizing market forces, individualism, and the repurposing of the state—has mutated, repeatedly, through successive waves of expansion, consolidation, and crisis, since the 1970s. And it has continued to do so in the aftermath of the global financial crisis, beginning in 2008, and through the time of the pandemic.——Jamie Peck
On the afternoon of December 15, 2022, the “Yang Nantsi Lecture on Humanities Academic” invited Jamie Peck, professor of geography from the University of British Columbia, Canada, to come to the Department of Geography of National Taiwan University to share his thoughts face-to-face with students. Professor Peck is an economic geographer, graduated from the University of Manchester, UK, where he obtained his doctoral degree. As an institutional political economist, his research is concerned with economic geography, urban restructuring, labor regulation, and statecraft. This face-to-face discussion provides an opportunity for graduate students in geography to meet with a leading figure in human geography. Considering students have diverse backgrounds in a wide range of geography discipline, the discussion is divided into two parts: in the first part, Professor Peck shares details of his academic background and his lifelong career as an economic geographer; in the second part, he answered questions from graduate students. Both parts of the discussion reflect the views of Professor Peck from his personal experience as the most senior economic geographer studying neoliberalism. The following content is the outline of the discussion with permission from Professor Peck.
I. Becoming an Economic Geographer
a. When Jamie Peck was a graduate student, Margaret Thatcher had just been elected prime minister of the United Kingdom and had come to power, and neoliberalism was beginning to challenge the post-war consensus.
b. In 1983, when Professor Peck graduated, the country was going through a severe recession. He couldn’t find a job. Before going home to live with his parents, he knocked on his advisor’s door, he was invited in for a chat. A PhD scholarship had become unexpectedly available, so he decided to continue his studies and wrote a doctoral dissertation on the theme of government labor-market policies.
c. Thatcher government was focused on the supply side of the labor market, ignoring the demand side (and job creation). The government of the time was committed to reducing inflation, lowering the reservation wages of unemployed people, and encouraging entrepreneurship.
d. Neoliberal ideology and free market theory talk about a small state and the liberation of markets by means of governmental withdrawal. But neoliberalism is actually a project of the state. The Thatcher government’s labor-market reforms illustrate this.
e. Compared to other social sciences, geography has had a prominent place in the literature on ‘neoliberalism’, much more so than sociology or political science, and certainly more so than economics. As an academic community, geography is not large, but for many years more than half of the papers on neoliberalism were written by geographers.
f. Professor Peck has studied neoliberalism more or less continuously since the 1980s. He did his postdoctoral in Australia before taking a teaching in the U.K.. In the mid-1990s, he spent a year in the United States as a Harkness fellow, becoming for a time a colleague of David Harvey at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. There, he discovered the role of state in the social and economic life of the United States is a curious blindspot, even for the critical social sciences (certainly when contrasted to Europe, where the actions of the state are closely scrutinized). From that time, he started working intensively on the United States, before relocating permanently to North America in 2000. Professor Peck saw many opportunities for economic-geographical work on the state and state transformation. This was an opportunity to study neoliberalism ‘at home’ in America.
II. Q & A
a. The first graduate student said that he was concerned about the multiple variations of digital capitalism and about which research methods should be adopted in economic geography when there are also bureaucratic anthropological studies being conducted in the contemporary era.
b. Peck replied that both finance and digital capitalism are important foci for contemporary research. Economic geographers often work on the ‘leading edges’ of economic change. In the past, economic geographers typically organized their expertise according to industry (e.g. electronics industry, automobile industry, and so on). Today, they are more likely to work with frameworks like global production networks (GPNs), or on institutions linked to local economic development.
c. In terms of research methods, geographers tend to be the “jack of all trades,” rather than specialists in a particular approach (such as ethnography with anthropologists). Geographers tend to be good at combining methods and working in creative ways.
d. The second question by graduate students was what comment Peck would give on his study proposal to Taiwan’s tuna practice in deep-sea fisheries. This graduate student thinks that analytical tools such as global production networks or value chains have yet to be capitalized upon and that there are lots of unresolved questions concerning maritime cross-border problems.
e. Peck said that Professor Becky Mansfield’s (Ohio State) work in political ecology has been pioneering in this area. His other suggestion was to get practical experience on a ship itself.
f. The third question is about the division between humanities and physical geography. How should geography relate to other disciplines?
g. Peck replied that in the university where he teaches, participatory observation and ethnography are also popular among graduate students right now. Again, while they may not be specialists in these methods, geographers tend to be adept at weaving approaches together and mixing methods.
h. The fourth question came from a graduate student asked on behalf of others from where he was currently conducting research in the suburbs of Keelung, part of the greater Taipei metropolitan area. He cited Neil Brenner’s concept of planetary urbanization and talked about the power differentials between the suburbs and the city.
i. Professor Peck commented that there have been some disconcerting trends in urban studies recently, an interdisciplinary field that unfortunately has become increasingly polarized: Some urban geographers are skeptical of more generalized theories, but a balance has to be struck between the particularity of places and the role of theory claims that necessarily span sites and situations. The ‘friction’ between these—localized circumstances and more abstract theory claims—has long been an important source of dynamism in urban studies.
We are very glad that Professor Jamie Peck spent a pleasant afternoon with us. The discussion was fulfilling, especially where Professor Peck shared his life experiences and responded to students’ questions. He talked to graduate students about his own experience and answered their questions. Professor Peck does not think it likely that the field of geography will ever have a unified approach or method, spanning glaciology, cultural geography and geographic information science. By its nature, geography is a pluralist, interdisciplinary field. Although some universities no longer have geography departments, he is still happy to remain part of the community of geographers. Thanks to Professor Peck, we have a better understanding of the discipline of economic geography, what it looks like today, and how critical approaches from economic geography have impacted the field of geography since 1980s.
 「楊楠子人文學術講座」為台大校友廖茂雄先生紀念已故夫人——台大地理環境資源學系系友楊楠子女士，捐款台大地理系支持人文學術交流活動。過往曾邀請保羅．羅賓斯（Paul Robbins）（2017）、尼爾．布倫納（Neil Brenner）（2018）、羅伯．基欽（Rob Kitchen）（2019）等國際學者來台演講。今年（2022），傑米．派克教授在12月9日給予的講題則是「形勢中國」（Conjunctural China）。詳見：https://www.facebook.com/yangnantsulectures/
 傑米．派克自從他的博士論文開始就進行新自由主義研究，詳見：Peck, J. A. (1988) The Structure and Segmentation of Local Labour Markets: Aspects of the Geographical Anatomy of Youth Employment in Great Britain, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Manchester, Department of Geography, University of Manchester.
 有關更詳盡的學思歷程訪談，請見：Peck, J., & Dawes, S. (2020). Contextualizing Neoliberalism : An Interview with Jamie Peck. In S. Dawes & M. Lenormand (Eds.), Neoliberalism in Context: Governance, Subjectivity and Knowledge (pp. 289-309). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-26017-0_16/
 一個由美國聯邦基金會（Commonwealth Fund）以創辦人安娜．哈克尼斯（Anna M. Harkness）為名設立的計畫，鼓勵外國公務員、商業人士、新聞記者等多個領域人士至美國進修。
 “Yang Nantsi Lecture on Humanities Academic” commemorates the late wife of Mr. Mao-Hsiung Liao, an alumnus of National Taiwan University, Ms. Nan-Tsi Yang, an alumnus of the NTU Department of Geography, and donates to the Department to support humanities and academic exchange activities. In the past, Paul Robbins (2017), Neil Brenner (2018), Rob Kitchen (2019) have been invited to give speeches in Taiwan. For this year (2022), the speech Professor Peck gave on December 9th is “Conjunctural China.” For details, see: https://www.facebook.com/yangnantsulectures/
 Peck has studied neoliberalism since his doctoral research. See Peck, J. A. (1988) The Structure and Segmentation of Local Labour Markets: Aspects of the Geographical Anatomy of Youth Employment in Great Britain, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Manchester, Department of Geography, University of Manchester.
 For a more detailed biographical interview, see Peck, J., & Dawes, S. (2020). Contextualizing neoliberalism : an interview with Jamie Peck. In S. Dawes & M. Lenormand (Eds.), Neoliberalism in Context: Governance, Subjectivity and Knowledge (pp. 289-309). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-26017-0_16/